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The Pyramids at Giza

The main orthodox opinion on the Giza pyramids is that the structures were built in the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt.It is believed that Khufu, pharaoh of Egypt c.2589-2566BC, launched the largest single building project of ancient Egypt, which remains the only surviving wonder of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The Great pyramid contains over 2.3 million blocks of limestone, on average 2.5 tons each, making the total pyramid tipping the scales at an overwhelming 5.75 million tons altogether.

When the capstone sat at its top, the height reached 481 feet, maintaining the title of the tallest building in the world until the Eiffel Tower eclipsed it in 1889. Each side measured about 756 feet from bottom to top, covering an area of 13 acres.

The most accurate survey of the Great Pyramid conducted by J.H. Cole in 1925, determined that the sides measured no more than .201 meters (8 inches) shorter or longer than the others, about as perfect a square base as can be achieved through modern or ancient technology. The north side measured 230.253 meters, the south 230.454, the east 230.391, and the west 230.357.

The four sides also point directly to the four cardinal directions. The north-south axis is about 3 arcminutes west of true north, just 1/20 a degree. That is as perfect as modern means can achieve today.

Khufu's great pyramid is strangely unique to almost all pyramids in ancient Egypt. The complex set of interior chambers and tunnels do not occur in any other pyramids throughout all of Egypt's history.

In comparison with the great pyramid, the two smaller adjacent pyramids are less craftsmanlike, less precise, and simpler, with less complicated tunnels and internal chambers.

What occurs at Giza represents the apogee of pyramid building in Egyptian history; the high point had passed, and it was all down hill from there so to speak.

The modern consensus on the pyramids, is that the structures were burial tombs meant to house the deceased remains of the Pharaoh. The following idea leaves a number of puzzling factors unsettled however.

The Meaning to the ancient Egyptians

To the Egyptians, in direct contrast to linear western thinking, history maintained a cyclical pattern, and the moment of creation instead represented not one event, but many, which, at any moment, could return to formless chaos (isfet). Thus, the culture developed an infatuation with instilling balance throughout the universe by recreating or reestablishing the sacred moment of creation.

The pyramid mound, which symbolized the ultimate pinnacle of ma'at, the order or truth of the cosmos, inspired the Egyptians to create enormous works of art to reenact the moment of order's triumph over chaos. Many ancient Egyptian myths reiterate the idea that life began on the mound that rose up from the watery chaos of Nun, and the light of civilization, represented by the Sun god Re, shone upon the dark waters to illuminate the universe.

The Pharaoh's role in maintaining the cosmic balance, consisted of bridging the gap between mortality and immortality, the real world and the afterlife. If the pharaoh could reach the afterlife, then the people could follow suit, the Nile would flood, providing food for all to eat.

As a necessity then, the people thought of the Pharaoh as their diplomat to the gods, the one who could speak the gods' language, share their wisdom as the head priest, and enact ceremonies to preserve the sacred ma'at and keep it from descending into chaos again. By continuously summoning the powers of creation daily, Pharaoh brought the natural flow of the world in alignment with the proper rhythms of ancient Egyptian life.

In effect, the pyramids acted as an enormous talisman, conduits through which the powers of creation continually flowed ever after, making the job of the Pharaohs that much easier and effective in the future. This would explain why the pyramids are primarily an artifact of the Old Kingdom; for the most part, the construction of pyramids completely discontinued when the development of the pyramidal form had reached architectural perfection in the Old Kingdom period. The structures were built for the special purpose of divine unity; since the function had now been achieved, need to build more was unnecessary.

Historical Accounts

Several bits of evidence support the idea that the pyramids provided symbolic functions rather than funerary, a theory commonly thought among Egyptologists. Diodorus Siculus (c.80BC-20AD), a Greco-Roman historian, wrote that neither Khafre or Khufu were buried in the pyramids, and instead were buried elsewhere. No human remains have ever been found in the pyramids.

On a side note, a basalt sarcophagus was discovered by British Colonel Howard Vyse in 1837 in the third smallest pyramid (Menkhaure's), uncovering a wooden coffin dated to the 26th Dynasty (664-525BC), housing human remains carbon dated to the Christian era, far later than Menkhuare's time in the Old Kingdom (2600BC). The Khafre Pyramid instead held the skeletal remains of a bull, not a human, providing further proof that the pyramid appeared rather more symbolic in usage than strictly utilitarian.

Air shafts also reach all the way into the central King's Chamber. Why the Egyptians would allow air circulation into the pyramid is baffling if the pyramid's function was funerary, as air was known as a catalyst of decay and the mummies archenemy in the afterlife. The shafts also point directly to certain important constellations in the night sky, thus the pyramid facilitates a more symbolic need rather than a real literal one.

The Ego of One Pharaoh?

Indeed, how could one person expect to recruit thousands upon thousands of people to erect such an ambitious structure? Can Egyptologists honestly think that, ancient people, no matter how gullible, stupid or uneducated they may think them to be, would be willing to build such a gigantic structure just to satisfy the ego of one Pharaoh?

The sheer dimensions of the edifice do no less to stress its paramount religious and spiritual significance to the ancient peoples living upon the Nile valley. The fact that the pyramids were built by citizens, not slaves, paid daily three times in five kinds of beer and four kinds of wine, clearly emphasizes the meaning such buildings must have given the people in return for such hard laborious work.

Over 203 horizontal courses of blocks form the great pyramid. The Queen's chamber lying at the twenty-fifth course, measures 19 feet long, 17 feet wide, and 15-20 feet high. The limestone blocks are so precisely adjoined that the room appears carved from a single block of stone. A peculiar pair of air vents also line the room, 5 inches into the stone, traveling 240 feet until terminating just 20 feet shy of the final exterior. Why the shafts are not completed is one of the most perplexing mysteries of the pyramids.

Dr. Zahi Hawass, the former director of the Giza Plateau, has suggested that the builders remained undecided on how the pyramid should lay out. The so called "Queen's Chamber" it seems only gets its name from its gabled roof design, a common feature among female Arab burial structures. Arab tombs are not ancient Egyptian tombs though. It may be possible that this chamber was instead the King's at first, which would explain why the vents are unfinished in the room, along with the absence of a sarcophagus.

The Grand Gallery leading up to the King's chamber is unusual as well. The vault stretches 157 feet at a 26 degree angle under seven-layered corbel walls, each angling in on themselves along the 28 foot height of the passage. The King's Chamber measures 34 feet long, 17 feet wide, and 19 feet high, wrought from rare granite blocks imported all the way from Aswan in southern Egypt.

The five Relieving Chambers atop the King's Chamber appear superfluous and not utilitarian. Scientists posit its construction as being necessary to "relieving" the enormous weight of the pyramid above pressing down on the chamber. That idea is illogical while considering that the Queen's Chamber below sustains far more weight per square foot of roof area than the King's Chamber, and yet contains no such relieving chambers.

If Khufu had meant to build the largest burial mound in human history, he certainly went to a great deal of unnecessary trouble, both on the inside and outside of the pyramid.

This puzzling implication, over the years, has inspired a whole retinue of theories to spring up on why the pyramids were built and for what purpose. Some of which are extraordinarily bizarre in nature.

Theories of the Pyramid's Purpose

One of the biggest is the idea of "pyramid power," a theory which puts forward the concept that the very shape of the pyramid can capture energy and perform practical functions, such as preserving food. A small but committed group of scientists focus on such "Pyramid Physics", and take the subject seriously.

Spiritual Beacon

One theory poses that the pyramid actually lies over important magnetic ley lines that traverse and crisscross the globe at certain points, points that the great pyramids of Giza rest upon. A biological engineer named John Burke argues that the movement of underground water in limestone aquifers below monuments produces an electric current via friction and the rich magnetic dolomite content of the stone.

For example, Burke measured positive ground current at Silbury hill in England, an ancient pyramidal mound composed of chalk and clay that lies on top of such limestone bedrock riddled with zig zagging aquifers filled with rainwater. Such tunnels and water caverns lie beneath the Giza plateau as well. Abd’El Hakim Awyan, a native Egyptian archaeologist and latter day sufist, attests to swimming in such tunnels during his youth on the Giza plateau.

Interestingly, Nikola Tesla used the natural conductivity of such limestone aquifers to generate electrical power. The inventor also built inclined underground passages into the aquifer to channel water. Such passages appear very similar to the ones found beneath the great pyramids, which may have served a related purpose. The power ran up the ground into the tesla coil tower above, which in theory channeled wirelessly transmitted power over great distance. However, since Telsa wanted the distribution of the energy to be universally free, the inventor’s Industrial sponsor, capitalist tycoon J.P. Morgan did not fund the scientist’s machine, instead choosing Edison’s monopolized and commercialized wire network.

Diagram of Tesla's Coil Tower erected at Rhode Island

The question is: why would the ancients need such a “power network”? Radical thinkers like the independent Egyptologist John Anthony West speculate that the pyramids in fact acted as gigantic conductors of magnetic fields that induced spiritual consciousness and well-being amongst the people of the region. The limestone core of the pyramids is known to consist of a stone rich in magnesium, a conductive stone that transmits charges. The outer sheath of the pyramids, the white lura Limestone coverstones, consist of stone with no such traces of magnesium; thus the casing stones act as a kind of wire insulator, much like that of a plastic sheath around a copper wire.

Today such energy is hardly noticeable firsthand say such people as Anthony West, since the Nile river flows over 8 miles to the east of the plateau, and therefore the underground aquifer does not fill up as much of the year, producing relatively little current within the structures. As a result, the pyramid's weaker magnetic fields induced by less current produce markedly lower spiritual effects for the people of the Earth. A number of people visiting the site, among them the esteemed Boston University Geologist Robert Shcoch, report feelings of heightened awareness or a higher state of energy while standing near the pyramids.

Hindu Yuga Cycle Wheel and corresponding Zodiac Ages

John Anthony West, as well as CPAK coordinator Walter Cruttenden, contend that the approach of the dark age in the Yugi cycles of time (epochs of cyclical time inherent in Hindu belief), necessitated the construction of the pyramids as a way of stemming the darker influences of the coming era. In the view of the ancients, the spiritual enlightenment of the golden age began to fade, and the barbarity and savagery of the Kali Yuga, or Iron Age, threatened to topple the equilibrium and peace of the past.

Incidentally, even such widely accepted scientists and prominent thinkers as Isaac Newton and Plato, believed in the procession of the Yugas or Ages, which saw the rise and fall of great civilizations over "Great Years" consisting of 26,000 years. Only with the onset of the modern age, with the prevailing paradigm of academic Neo-Darwinism, has such ideas been put to the way side, overturned by dogmatic western linear models that see civilization as a gradual rise in development from primitive to advanced, naturally placing our current world at the veritable apex of history. Many maverick idealists see the following as a biased knowledge "filter" that can potentially manifest inaccurate views of the past.

Pyramid Power

The idea of pyramid power began with the onset of the modern industrialized 20th century, when Frenchman Antoine Bovis in the 1920's and 1930's stumbled upon trash cans inside the monument, which curiously appeared capable of drying dead cats and mice that had been disposed of in the receptacles, perfectly mummified, apparently automatically, without putrefying or giving off a nauseating stench.

Excited over his new discovery, Bovis hurriedly returned to France, built a scale model of Khufu's monument, and deposited a dead cat in side to "test" the theory. Miraculously, at least on Bovis' own testimony, the Giza phenomenon repeated itself, the cat mummified without rotting. Bovis supposedly verified the result with slices of cheese and raw chunks of meat.

Shaves and Dead Cats

Unfortunately, Bovis never published his experiments. However, word of mouth spread soon to Czechoslovakia, reaching the ears of one Karl Drbal in the 1940's. Drabal, a radio engineer already interested in processes of regenerative energy, became fascinated by Bovis' supposed ideas when he attempted experiments himself. The engineer built a scale model of the pyramid, and tested everything from meat, eggs, flowers, to small reptiles and amphibians, and reported successful results.

Drbal then hypothesized that the same concept would work for rusted shavers, and claimed the sharpness of the tools returned also. By storing the shaver in the pyramid, the shaver would be good for another 200 shaves according to Drbal.

So convinced of his new method, Drbal filed for a patent, although the patent office initially appeared unimpressed, the regional office in Prague eventually granted Drbal patent no.91304 in 1959. Drbal argued that the device worked due to the pyramid's special cavity that resonated with cosmic microwaves concentrated in the earth's magnetic field. Such waves realigned steel molecules in the metal and helped keep the blade dry, preventing rust.

Once Drbal's idea made it beyond the Red Iron Curtain of the cold war era into the West, countless other people began doing their own experiments, including experiments associated with the paranormal, preventing mold and preserving food without refrigeration. One writer reported that putting a pyramid shape beneath her boyfriend's chair transformed her partner's fatigue into a revitalized sexual prowess.

Researches from the Stanford Research Institute in 1977, however, carrying out experiments in the Great Pyramid, found that biological samples deteriorated at normal rates within the structure.

An Ancient Water Plant

Hydraulic engineer Edward J Krunkel of Warren, Ohio, wrote a book called "Pharaoh's Pump, published 1962, in which the author argued that the Great Pyramid's interior had in fact been used in the past as a gigantic water pump that spewed water at tremendous pressures.

In effect, Krunkel's idea consisted of a series of locks, which floated blocks up to each respective course, the water then evacuated via the passages and tunnels; subsequently each block "sank" into its proper place. The concept is a sound one. A similar system is utilized at the Suez canal and the Panama canal, both which raise or lower boats to higher or lower water levels at each lock, eventually transferring the vessel across the canal, and over to the other side of the continent.

Krunkel contended that the system in the Pyramid ran off waters sourced from the Nile when it was at high flood, a procedure which would have taken still much more than a massive bucket brigade to feed the volume the pyramid would need. The engineer continued to argue that the internal system worked by creating a large fire at the top of the grand gallery passage, in effect sucking out a vacuum that caused the waters below to rise.

Unfortunately, no signs of fire damage or soot are evident anywhere within the structure, residue that surely would have been left behind by such a large hydraulic system. No valves, seals, or other apparatus are seen or ever have been seen in the Pyramid either.

Although Krunkel's theory is certainly not an entirely implausible theory, the Pyramid was almost assuredly never used as such a device.

The Giza Power Plant

The master craftsmen and reknowned engineer Christopher Dunn, has an even more outlandish theory about the use of the Great Pyramid. In his book, "The Giza Power Plant," published in 1998, Dunn writes that the pyramid was used as an electrical power plant, a process which began in the Queen's Chamber full of hydrogen. Through chemical reactions between Diluted hydrochloric acid fed through the northern shaft, and hyrdrated zinc chloride fed through the other. Altogether the mixture produced vast amounts of expanding heated hydrogen gas, which filled the Pyramid's passages. Waste materials spent from the reactions slid down the horizontal shaft, and down the Well Shaft into the bedrock.

Far below the Pyramid, in the Subterranean Chamber, a gigantic vibrator oscillated the pyramid's structure until it reached the equivalent frequency level of the Earth. By doing so, vibrational energy was drawn up from the planet and into the large Grand Gallery, where vast arrays of Helmholtz resonators converted the vibrational energy into sound.

An acoustic filter in the antechamber ensured that frequencies attuned to the granite blocks entered the King's Chamber. The quartz crystals in the granite then vibrated in sympathy with the incoming sound waves, which further "set off" a chain reaction of freed electrons, a process called the piezoelectric effect.

Now, in the King's Chamber, the electric effect combined with the sound energy and the expanding hydrogen gas from below, raising the energy state of each electron in the hydrogen gas particles.

Dunn also thought a microwave signal flowed through the metal lined northern shaft, channeled through a crystal amplifier. The microwaves then lowered the energy states of the hydrogen back to their natural state. Upon the reversion of billions and trillions of particles back to a natural state, a microwave receiver stored the energy on the southern wall, where the southern shaft beamed the energy out a metal lining into space. Accordingly, satellites in space then beamed energy back down to "power up" the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

Dendera Temple Relief

Egyptologists of course scoff at Dunn's ideas. Dunn however, points to evidence of advanced electrical technology in ancient Egypt at the temple of Dendera. There, Dunn believes a symbolic religious relief on the temple walls represents a Crookes tube, aka a Cathode Ray tube, a device originally invented by Englishman Sir William Crookes in the 1870's.

Incidentally though, Dunn's proof exists in the late Ptolemaic period, c.300BC, not the Old Kingdom of the pyramid builders.

Modern Crookes Tube

Where though is the huge amount of equipment that would have been necessary to maintain this system? The Pyramid would of had to of been equipped with vibration equipment in the Subterranean chamber, banks of Helmholtz resonators, acoustic filters, metal linings in the air shafts, a crystal amplifier, a microwave receiver, and a complete array of satellites orbiting above in space.

 

The proposed theory does not hold up even under casual scrutiny. But even if it were taken seriously, the Queen Chamber's air shafts did not even fully connect up with the outside of the Pyramid or the interior of the Queen's chamber. Waynam Dixon discovered the shafts in 1872 behind over 5 inches of stone, which he first removed. Dunn argues though that holes existed between in the Old Kingdom, where measuring meters monitored incoming fluids!

Nuclear Power Plant

Chemical engineer Erica Miller, mechanical engineer Sean Sloan, and chemical engineer Gregg Wilson all agree on one theory in a 2001 article published in "Meta Research Bulletin." According to the three scientists, the pyramid acted as a huge nuclear breeder reactor, which produced Plutonium fuel by mediating uranium isotopes in water. Supposedly, the King's Chamber was flooded with a water pump, and the sarcophagus was packed with uranium ore.

The Relieving chambers above prevented the high pressure steam resulting from the fission process from damaging the internal structure of the Pyramid. Water and waste radioactive materials such as strontium-90 and cesium-137 flowed down the grand gallery. Steam and gas escaped through the northern air shaft.

The grand gallery also served as a hoist crane, which installed new uranium cores into the sarcophagus and simultaneously extracted spent cores. Radioactive materials exiting the Well Shaft then turned the turbine below in the Subterranean Chamber, converting mechanical energy then into stored electrical energy. Of course no turbine has ever been excavated in the monument?

Not bizarre enough for the three engineers it seems, the three decided that Martians actually built the pyramid and exported all the plutonium fuel back to their home planet, which of course explains the apparent absence of any leftover ancient plutonium.

The two by products of the fission process still would be found at the complex if the pyramid did in fact act as a nuclear power plant. Plutonium 239 has a half-life of 24,000 years and Uranium-238, 4.5 billion years. Obviously, radioactive phenomena would still exist at the pyramid, causing the pyramid to glow inside at night, rendering cameras and video equipment unusable, and guards clusters of cancer and radiation sickness. All which remain, to the present day, unreported.

The Giza Death Star

The most far fetched theory by far is that of the physicist Joseph P. Farrell, who wrote "The Giza Death Star" (2001), and "The Giza Death Star Deployed" (2003). Farrell points to stories of reputed ancient cities in India that turned to glass by extreme heat. Fields of fused green glass, Farrell believes, provides positive proof for the presence of thermonuclear warfare in the ancient past.

Three civilizations during that period, fought over the world with a vast arsenal of nuclear weapons of which the Great Pyramid of Giza represented the "royal howitzer" of ancient Egypt. Farrell's death star did no less than use hydrogen plasma to gather, oscillate, and harmonically resonate nuclear, magnetic, acoustic, and gravitational energy from the earth, the solar system, and the galaxy even! Collectively producing a high energy beam that sheathed the entire pyramid in blue light, the energy flung out into space to demolish a distant target.

If the death star commanders so wished, the violent reaction could be controlled to create tactical nuclear explosions upon contact, simply cook the target with extreme heat, without nuclear fallout, or channel an enormous beam that detonated a veritable "big bang" that spelled doom for an entire planet.

Farrell thinks that the absence of the "gear" of the weapon, is in fact intentional by the commanders, who dismantled the equipment to leave the empty hulk of the pyramid so that the monument may serve as a reminder of the evils of war, much like the memorials of Auschwitz, Buchenwal, and Dachau serve as reminders of the horrors of the Nazi holocaust.

Astronomical Observatory 

Perhaps a more possible theory for the pyramid's use may originally have been a large astronomical observatory platform for a period of time. Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), a Victorian era astronomer delved into the writings of Proclus, a Neoplatonic philosopher (411-485AD) that provided a number of observations on Plato's Timaeus dialogues. In those comments, Proclus speculated that the pyramid functioned as an astronomical observatory before it was completed. Proctor thought the idea made good sense.

Significant evidence reflects the ancient Egyptians' deep understandings of the celestial heavens. During the Old Kingdom, astronomers knew that no single star actually occupied the north pole. As a result, the ancient observers established the point by finding the circumpolar stars that circled around it, never setting or rising above the horizon. Those stars were so named the "Imperishables" by the Egyptians. By dividing the distance between the two extreme positions of a circumpolar star in half, the Egyptians determined the exact point of true north.

The sacred ritual that measured that point, which can be traced back to the 2nd dynasty, is depicted in Egyptian art in the Edfu temple complex in southern Egypt. There an image of Thoth, the wisdom bringer of Egypt, demonstrates the stretching of the cords, along with the goddess Seshat, who drive sighting rods into the ground, and hold clubs up to the stars to mark the extremes of the circumpolar stars. The adjacent inscriptions read, "I hold the peg. I grasp the handle of the club and grip the measuring rod with Seshat. I turn my eyes to the movement of the stars....I make firm the corners of thy temple."

The Grand Gallery

Proctor proposed that the Grand Gallery's elaborate design, facilitated the pyramid with what essentially amounted to a large telescope. The Victorian scientist measured that the celestial meridian exactly bifurcated the passage in half. The usefulness of such a design would be invaluable to an ancient astronomer he believed, as observers within the gallery could note the moment when a star first appeared in the opening at the end of the gallery, with an hourglass or swinging pendulum, and the moment when the star disappeared on the other side. Thus, dividing in half the time, and derive the exact time when the star crossed the meridian. By repeating the process for all the other stars, ancient astronomers could compile an accurate map within modern precision of the heavens.

 

Wooden posts positioned at the four corners of the pyramid platform provided additional information. By noting when stars set and rose above the posts, the observers could combine the measurements of the posts with the gallery observations and complete an entire map of the night sky.

Midday sunlight also provided an accurate means of measuring the passing seasons of the year. Shadows running along the galleries interior marked the important midsummer, midwinter solstices, and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

Monuments of God

John Greaves (1602-1652), an Anglican Professor of Geometry at Gresham College in London, and master of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian astronomical literature, hoped to standardize weights and measures for all nations by studying and cataloging the dimensions of the Great Pyramid. Using a standardized 10 foot measuring rod, the scholar believed that by using the Pyramid as a basis for all universal measures, the optimum cosmic units of metrology might be captured.

In Greaves' recordings and observations in "Pyramidographia: Or, a Description of thePyramids in AEgypt" (1646), the professor of geometry wrote several thoughts that came to influence ideas about the pyramid ever since. It was Greaves' contention that the ancient Egyptians had extricated themselves from the ordinary passage of time. The Great Pyramid represented eternity, a zone of timelessness where laws of decay and deterioration ceased to exist.

Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), an astronomer royal of Scotland and professor of astronomy at the University of Edinburgh, took many of Greaves' divine origins ideas further. Smyth, like Greaves, made a second survey of the Great Pyramid, perhaps the most accurate up to that time.

In the resulting work, "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid," Smyth wrote that the design of the pyramid stemmed directly from divine inspiration. Smyth was convinced that the pyramid builders used the same cubit as Noah to construct the Ark to build the Pyramids. The scientist's measurements continuously came up about 2 feet short though, so Smyth devised a way to get the result he needed by obtaining the mean between his measurements of the sides of the Great Pyramid and Colonel Howard Vyse's measurements, a rather dishonest act for a supposed scientist.

Smyth though continued to argue that the Great Pyramid revealed a seemingly anomalous level of high astronomical and geographic understanding of physics that did not fit the standard historical linear story of civilization from primitive to advanced over time. As a result, Smyth concluded that the only explanation for such premature sophistication at such an early time in history, was that the Pyramid's design was the work of God.

Openly the astronomer condemned the idolatrous Egyptians of the ancient world, and further contended that the Egyptians did not build the Pyramid. In his view, the pyramid had been built by the Hebrew Prince or priest named Philitis, a Shepherd mentioned by the Greek Historian Herotodus. Once again, Smyth erroneously skewed the facts, and altered the testimony provided by Herotodus, who only mentioned the Shepherd as a simple man that managed a flock in the vicinity of the Pyramids, and nothing else.

A number of Smyth's colleagues admired the meticulous nature upon which the scientist measured the pyramid, at least when the scientist remained honest, and yet simultaneously derided the religious fervor displayed within the book. Among scientists, Smyth's research went nowhere.

Robert Menzies (1877), took Smyth's zealous ideas further. Menzies explained that the Great Pyramid's interior chambers and passages, indeed, enshrined the chronology of divine history. According to Menzies, the key to unlocking the secret code of the pyramid lay in the fact that one inch equaled one year. The subsequent lengths of the passages and dimensions of the chambers told the entire story of the Bible, year by year.

Conclusions

So from all the different theories surrounding the purpose of the great Pyramids at Giza, what is the most likely of the lot?

Well a likely picture of the Pyramids is probably that the structures had a couple different functions or meanings at different stages of construction. No proof exists to pinpoint exactly how fast and how quickly the buildings rose up. But, since it is known that many monuments throughout Egypt were constantly rebuilt and refurbished throughout time, the case that the pyramids of the 4th Dynasty contained several phases of constructions is not an outlandish idea.

The Great Pyramid's incorporation of the bedrock mound beneath hints at an earlier phase that may greatly antedate Khufu's time, no later than maybe 5000BC. Proctor's theory that the pyramid originally served as a grand astronomical observatory centuries before Khufu arrived at Giza, is also a plausible one.

The descending passage and ascending passages both follow a 26 degree angle, both carefully aligned with the sacred Imperishable Circumpolar star Alpha Draconis in approximately 3500BC, a full thousand years earlier than the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom.

Coincidentally, pioneering work done by the Doctor of Physics in Archaeology at the University of the Aegean in Rhodes, Ioannis Liritzis, used a newly developed dating technique called Optical Thermoluminescence, which measures the amount of photons and gamma radiation the pyramid blocks have been exposed to over time. The doctor then compares the results to the background radiation at the site, yielding the date the blocks last saw sunlight. The pyramid blocks gave a date 1000 years older than the one commonly accepted today, around 3500 BC.

Duat in the Pyramid

The unusual number of many passages running throughout the Great Pyramid, probably reflects an attempt by early Pharaohs to construct a permanent "Duat" world, very similar in appearance to the many illustrations of passages and chambers depicted in the Am-Duat texts painted all over Tomb walls in the Valley of the Kings.

Am-Duat Text (Tomb of Thutmosis)

The pyramid, appears rather like a gift by a previous Pharaoh to the people or to future Pharaohs, an emblematic creation of the netherworld journey where the ka soul sought passage into the heavenly afterlife.

Additional tunnels and passages located beneath the Giza plateau revealed by ground penetrating radar, quite a few explored by Andrew Collins, also hint at a simultaneous Duat under the whole Giza necropolis facilitating the deepest symbolic levels of that underworld. Pre-existing legends surrounding the Rostua plateau appear to point to a connection between the cave systems (representing the womb) and a primordial sky mother seen as the Milky Way Galaxy in the night sky, later seen as Nuit (Nuit appears as a woman in Egyptian art arched over the Earth covered with stars, strongly mirroring the arching Milky Way); the spirits of the deceased became reborn through the mother's birth canal, emerging from the parting thighs of Nuit represented as the Cygnus rift separating the Galaxy in the night sky and physically on the ground as the caves, thought of as the womb of the Earth.

Older local legends probably prompted predynastic kings to build the pyramids at Giza to aid the rebirth of the Pharaohs to the stars by "harnessing" the preestablished natural "energy" or "mystical nature" of the Giza cave system as additional vehicles of birth and rebirth. The prehistoric symbolism ties in perfectly with later ancient Egyptian myths, particularly the myth telling of the birth and rebirth of the sun everyday on the horizon, whereby Ra sailed on the night barque through Nuit's body, the sun covered by the Milky Way in the night sky.  Upon reaching the other side, in one version Ra coupled with Hathor giving birth to the sun or Ra simply parted Nuit's legs, re-emerging as the newly born sun god then continuing through the sky on the day barque, the cycle thereby repeating all over again.

The King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid may symbolize the Hall of Ma'at in the Netherworld, the realm presided over by Osiris, where the heart of the deceased was measured on scales, and weighed to determine the worthiness of each person's soul. (Incidentally, the five relieving chambers above the King's Chamber altogether appear much like the sacred Djed pillar of Osiris, the emblem of eternal life and stability).

One could further argue that the air shafts of the Great Pyramid aligned with the constellations of certain gods (Osiris/Isis) served as conduits through which the gods traveled down to the pyramid and inhabited the Kings Chamber, there allotting judgment to the deceased. The sarcophagus might represent instead the coffin the lord of the dead would temporarily use at night, the time the god manifested within the Upper Duat (Pyramid).

In the Late Period, the Egyptians viewed the pyramids as places of ritual initiation into the mysteries schools of the elite. Within the Christian and Muslim eras, the pyramids symbolized the heathen idolatry true religion sought to snuff out. Into modern times, hosts of bizarre tales, the most imaginative science fiction probably couldn't match, and theories of Extraterrestrial intervention, populated the arguments of many people seeking to unlock the mysteries of one of the most fascinating civilizations of ancient History.

For more information on the pyramids at Giza, Robert Schoch's book "Pyramid Quest" is perhaps one of the most invaluable resources on all the "pyramid lore" associated with the structures. A detailed review and link to the book on amazon is given below.

 

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Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization The Egyptologist acclaimed for re-dating the Great Sphinx at Giza sets his sights on one of the true mysteries of antiquity: the Great Pyramid of Giza. What is the Great Pyramid of Giza? Ask that basic question of a traditional Egyptologist, and you get the basic, traditional answer: a fancy tombstone for a self-important pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. This, Egyptologists argue, is the sole finding based on the data, and the only deduction supported by science. By implication, anyone who dissents from this point of view is unscientific and woolly-minded-a believer in magic and ghosts. Indeed, some of the unconventional ideas about the Great Pyramid do have a spectacularly fabulous ring to them. Yet from beneath the obvious terms of this controversy, a deeper, more significant question arises: how is it that the Great Pyramid exercises such a gripping hold on the human psyche- adding cryptic grace to the back of the one-dollar bill and framing myriad claims of New Age "pyramid power"? In Pyramid Quest, Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally use the rigorous intellectual analysis of scientific inquiry to investigate what we know about the Great Pyramid, and develop a stunning hypothesis: This ancient monument is the strongest proof yet that civilization began thousands of years earlier than is generally thought, extending far back into a little-known time. In tracing that story, we come to understand not only the Great Pyramid but also our own origins as civilized beings.