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Zep Tepi: The Golden Age of Egypt

The First Occasion of Egypt

Buried within the texts of Ancient Egypt and its esoteric religion, the hidden vestiges of an even earlier time, or a remote golden age before the Kings became mortal and men and women experienced the hardships of death, the Egyptians refer to a time called Zep Tepi, or the "first occasion" of Egypt. A time ancient to the Ancient Egyptians themselves.

Having influenced and captivated western culture for centuries, inspiring the research of the controversial egyptologist Shwaller De Lubiz to the famous Hollywood blockbuster "StarGate", many spiritual new age ideas and enlightened pagan religious beliefs are based on Zep Tepi lore and legend.

  

Origins of the Myth

The most apparent and direct references to this mythical golden age are mentioned on the walls of the Temple Complex at Edfu, in upper Egypt, built by the Greek Ptolemaic rulers of Alexanders Empire c. 250 BC. Other sources consist of the Turin Papyrus written contemporary with Ramesses the Great, of the Hebrew Exodus c. 1250BC, and on the Palermo Stone from the 5th dynasty Old Kingdom (2500BC).

The Turin Papyrus

Within the overall canon, the times of the gods are laid alongside the historical references of real mortal kings of dynastic Egypt, spanning over 36,620 years. On the remains of the turin papyrus, perhaps the best source, the epoch is further divided into separate periods or "dynasties" of rulers. One register lists the Neteru spirits, who took on anthropomorphic forms (possessing human bodies but heads of animals), each inscribed with an individual cartouche next to each Neteru, and a number of years of each one's reign in an adjacent column, numbers which have since crumbled into dust.

In the next few columns, the "Venerables of Memphis" are added, as are the "Venerables of the North", and the Shemsu Hor, or otherwise called the companions or followers of Horus, who are perhaps semi-divine or semi mortal. In total, an inventory column is then inscribed in the papyrus which reads: "Venerables of Shemsu Hor, 13,420 years, and reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years." Interestingly, the first radio-metrically dated remains of modern Cro-magnon man is dated to around 35,000 years ago. There is evidence that a significant hike in stellar radiation recorded in Greenland ice cores might also have instigated an acceleration in human evolution around that time.

As far back as the Palermo Stone, proof is seen that the Egyptians believed in the existence of a much earlier time when gods ruled, and was cataloged with serious precision alongside real historical ones. Manetho's own records are considered the literary foundation by which scholars officially reconstruct the majority of the historical royal lineage and chronology of dynasties in Pharaohnic Egypt, but at the same time, they completely reject all of the other carefully detailed inscriptions and cartouches of the earlier time of Zep Tepi cherished by the Egyptians.

The Myth

The accounts of Zep Tepi by the Egyptian priests at Edfu describe a time of the gods before the time of Menes, the actual historical founder of Egypt.

On the walls of the Edfu Temple, the story of Zep Tepi displays the rule of a real historic people, according to the Egyptians, who came to Egypt escaping the destruction of their homeland, and proceeded to gift the people of the Nile with fruits of civilization and agriculture.     

The intermediaries of this great progenitor culture were called the Urshu, who appeared in human form and often took on part of the shape of animals called Neteru.     

According to the Egyptians these great beings could even die or become sick under certain circumstances, most notably the Shemsu Hor, who ruled in a second long period of prehistory. It is very likely, that the zoomorph "spirits" of Zep Tepi in fact represent animal or totemic incarnations thought to inhabit Shamans during visions and mushroom rituals. During such trances, modern shamans often report seeing such zoomorphic beings, who in ancient times were thought to be channeled and allowed to penetrate into the real world via the shaman; the dual nature, being at times immortal/mortal, of the Urshu/Neteru appears then to accurately reflect mythologized semi-historical shamanic figures remembered on the walls of Edfu in southern Egypt not as myth, but history. It is likely these shamans also shared a historical connection to the "Nephilim" Shamans that built such temples as Gobekli Tepe in south-central Turkey. (For more information on the Edfu Building Text translations, see the amazon book link at the bottom of the page).

The Edfu inscriptions detail several different phases of original creation, including, "Specification of the Sacred Mounds," "The Coming of Re to his Mansion of Mes-nehet," and "Offering the Lotus."

The Primeval Mound

In the beginning, a group of beings known as the Most Aged Ones, emerged from the watery nothingness of Nun, at the behest of a powerful serpent god that remains nameless in the Edfu texts.

Eve Reymond, a Polish egyptologist interprets these divine ones as formless, natural powers without individual personalities. At other times, however, she clearly distinguishes the Primeval Ones as being flesh-and-blood zoomorphs (human beings with animal heads), who also possessed two spirit doubles, a Ka and Ba spirit. At times the beings inhabited a separate mythical realm and yet in other instances, the powerful beings built shrines, temples, and shelters and enclosures on the edge of the flood plains.

The first act the Primeval Ones achieved, according to the temple inscriptions, was the impregnation of the benent, "the embryo of the Earth", taking on the shape of four pairs of bulls and cows; the Eldest Ones inseminated the "Mother of the Earth".

The first matter to form from the embryo was the lotus, around which the field of reeds sprung about a central island, the outlying domain being named the sacred Wetjeset-Hor. The island is named, "Province of the Beginning," in the text which the Primeval Ones called "The Island of the Egg" as an egg was brought forth to house the embryo ever after. The Old Ones then took on a "bodily appearance" on the Earth, and through those forms, the beings emitted an unearthly radiance that illuminated the primeval waters, and universe beyond (symbolic of the birth of civilization).

Picture of Egyptian brooch symbol of the Sacred Lotus. Studies reveal that the blue Egyptian water lily or Nile lotus is known for inducing mild psychoactive effects and altered states once ingested, including feelings of tranquility and heightened awareness, a state commonly sought by Shamans.

From the Nun also then came the Ka's, "the creators," who drew forth the Sun god Re or the "countenance of Ra". Over 60 of the Dwrty-Falcons, meaning "The Old Ones" perched atop 60 djed pillars surrounding the hatched central egg. The sun deity shone out from the lotus within the egg, the heat of Re's eternal radiance drying up the chaotic waters of creation, allowing the world to commence into the age of history and memory. The descriptions bear remarkable similarities with the creation myth of Innu, otherwise called Heliopolis by the Greeks, one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt that venerated the creator god Atum.

Geographically, the location the Edfu texts allude to as the point of creation may be the "Ain Shams" otherwise known as the "Eye of the Sun" or "Fountain of the Sun," a holy spring at Innu that rests near a sacred sycamore tree called the "Tree of the Virgin", recognized as the place the virgin Mary sought refuge with the baby Jesus. The names of "Eye of the Sun" and "Fountain of the Sun" refer to Atum-Ra's eye, and the fountain of creation that sprouted the egg and lotus, giving birth to Ra or the "countenance of Ra", the sun's light.

On a deeper symbolic level, the lotus plant appears to be revered as the "unveiler" of previously unknown wisdom, the bearer of the light of Ra, enlightenment, the path to civilization brought on by Shamans ingesting the plant's petals or even by just sniffing the flower, a scene oft depicted on Egyptian carvings in dynastic times; scientists also verify that just by sniffing the Nile lotus a person can experience feelings of increased tranquility and heightened awareness. Prehistoric Shamans in Egypt no doubt knew of the flower's special effects and uses, a substance that effectively left the Shaman's body "open" for the animal spirits to inhabit.

The Island of Trampling

In a separate account of Zep Tepi in the Edfu temple, the island is referred to as the Island of Trampling. The Lotus in the center pool is replaced by the ded (djed) pillar, constructed of reeds. The pillar served as the perch of the nameless earth god, called "This One", or the "The One", now taking on the form of a falcon. The chthonic deity (a term meaning underground) is referred to as the first deceased god in all Egyptian mythology.

The Djed Pillar

Two new powerful falcons then came to the Djed, one named Nefer-Hor, "the Sanctified Ruler, Lord of the Perch," and Heter-Hor, "Ruler of the Wing, or the Winged One," both whose faces shone with divine light and brilliance. Both are the ka and ba spirit doubles of the original Falcon Earth god at the center respectively, who also possess two separate doubles themselves, bringing the total number of rulers of the island to five.

Another company of Falcons emerged then from the primeval Nun waters and perched upon reeds surrounding the center djed pillar. In other myths, the Bennu bird is often portrayed as the important avian to sit upon the original creation mound, or the benben stone, closely related to the Djed pillar, depicted in the creation myth of On.

Perched Bennu Bird

The Edfu priests then detail that the avians erected "the first structure" called the "shelter," to contain the djed pillar, the nucleus of the island. Simultaneously, an enclosure was built around the edges of the center pool, called the "field of reeds". Within the shelter, powerful relics, along with a sacred mace called Great White, were placed within the Earth god's sanctuary, now named "Mansion of Isden", a square construct fashioned from bundles of reeds.

Although theories on what the descriptions are meant to represent remain sketchy, most likely the following inscriptions does not entail a second phase of creation of the first account, but rather a separate beginning in the delta, near Busiris (Djedu), where the symbol of the Djed pillar is thought to have originated.

Historically, Osiris was suppose to have been born there, the god of the underworld; the Djed pillar is also inseparably connected to the god. The mace, a powerful symbol of Pharaohs in later times, "Great White" also suggests that a King within the area must have ruled, later becoming deified as Osiris and Andjety, a name incidentally which literally means, "He who comes from Djedu."

The Island of Combat

After the final stages of creation ended, the Mansion of Isden  then suddenly appears to have been plunged into a war with an incoming enemy. The Primeval ones fought with the invaders, but succumbed to the enemy snake; "the Great Leaping One," a flying serpent, dueled the Primeval One's god the Falcon in the sky above as the people fought below.

Eve Reymond suggests that the ground invaders resembled a foreign tribe that took advantage of the chaos brought on by a comet, attacking the community in order to steal scarce food. Thus the climatic battle in the sky between the "Great Leaping One" and the Falcon merely symbolized the climatic changes occurring in the wake of a devastating natural disaster, the Snake leaping across the sky subsequently becoming the emblem of a rival culture that brought an end to the Djed cult at the Mansion of Isden.

Interestingly, there is proof of war in Lower Egypt c. 9,000 BC, evident by a large amount of tanged and notched flint arrowheads at a site called Helwan, near modern Cairo at the mouth of the Delta. The points contain characteristics similar to ones at Natufian sites in the Near East, also dated to c. 9,000 BC. A Qadan cemetery in southern Egypt, at a site called Djebel Sahaba also contains many hastily buried individuals, the bodies of which display signs of violent death with flints still embedded in the bones. Fred Wendorf, an Egyptologist, emphasizes that the deaths could not have been the result of casual competition between local groups. Furthermore, the shared attributes of the fashioned points at Helwan with Near-east points may point to an overall widespread industry that supplied a greater war stretching throughout the Eastern Mediterranean.

In the Edfu accounts, the destruction of that war supposedly toppled the "Sound Eye" of the center of the Primeval island which illumined the entire world. The primeval waters of Nun then fell into darkness as a storm ravaged the island, killing the inhabitants, who are ever after named, the "ancestors." 

Temple of the Falcon

Despite the destruction, a new Falcon god leading the primeval ones beats back the intruders, and proceeds to build a ritual enclosure on marginal lands beyond the original land of the Djed, called "First Place, the Place of the First One, or Place of the First."

Who the following new beings may represent historically is a matter of speculation, but it is very likely the Primeval Ones that eventually defeat the Great Leaping one, are part of the "Venerables of Memphis" mentioned in the Turin papyrus, while the prior rulers of the "Island of Trampling" housing the Djed pillar are primarily the "Venerables of the North."' 

The Sebtiw, known as the ancestral beings or the "Crew of the Falcon", are very likely a group of people that migrated from the area of Memphis to the Delta, to protect the sacred mound. In the Edfu writings, the Sebtiw emerged from the Nun, the chief of whom are Wa and 'Aa.

The temple accounts detail Wa and 'Aa's discovery of the old mound, now submerged under the water, of which only the tips of reeds reveal its location to the two leaders. Through a series of sacred spells, the two beings are able to make the waters recede once again. A new perch is erected at the center by Wa and 'Aa, where their new Falcon leader then takes his seat (throne?). Upon building the new perch, the old inhabitants, or ancestors, including the old nameless earth god, are resurrected, who take their place as guardians of the island.

Eve Reymond believes that the actual place the new rulers originated from is none other than the well of bir el-samman, near the cemetery of the crow on the giza plateau, just north of the village of Nazlet el-Samman, surrounded by a grove of sycamore trees. The Edfu hieroglyphics specifically say that the Falcons of Wa and 'Aa rose up from the primeval waters by the land of the Southern Sycamore. The primeval well mentioned in the funerary Am-Duat texts, also mention that the Underworld of the Soul issued from a place where "the subterranean water(s of creation) welled out."

Well of Bir el-Samman on Giza Plateau

 

To honor the former rulers, the incoming beings built the Temple of the Falcon, (the Mansion of Mes-nehet), which was either built at the old site or in the original homeland of the new rulers (i.e. near Memphis or the well of bir el-samman on the Giza plateau). The temple specifically measured 30 cubits west to east, and 20 cubits from south to north, with a large courtyard containing a series of smaller buildings. Returning floods threatened to damage the temple however over time, prompting the Shebtiw, Wa and 'Aa, to enter the temple and retrieve power objects, "ihet", the relics, to draw back the waters from the island and protect the sacred temple.

  

After this, it is said according to Eve Reymond, that Wa and 'Aa "sailed away to another part of the mythical world to continue their creative task."

The temple is lauded as the first permanent built structure and the role model for all other temples in later ages in the Edfu inscriptions, which Eve believes points to a pre-dynastic religious center near Memphis, an area the Egyptians often called the "homeland of the Egyptian temple".

The Edfu temple wall's records in reference to that temple, "The First Province of the Falcon," state that it was "built at the dictates of the Ancestors according to what was written in this book which descended from the sky to the north of Memphis." Another source claims the temple was designed by Imhotep, the architect of Djoser's stepped pyramid in saqarra

Edgar Cayce's Age of Ra-Ta

In several life readings made by the famous American psychic Edgar Cayce, a number of connections are made to the age of Zep Tepi of Egypt, and the Falcons of Eve's interpretative histories. The so called "sleeping prophet" established a supposed link to a high priest of a far bygone age called Ra-Ta. In this era, Cayce claims that an invading group of Caucasians and Atlanteans teamed up with native Egyptians to build a great monument near Memphis from 11,000BC to 10,000BC.

Although I'm reluctant to put my trust in Cayce's predictions, there may be a shred of truth to be found; whether "Atlanteans" or people from the Caucus mountains had anything to do with a monument in the vicinity of Memphis, evidence for "someone" or groups of people could potentially substantiate parts or general aspects of the vision if indeed any hold any truth at all.

Artifacts uncovered from this period reflect a highly advanced microlith tool industry at sites throughout Egypt, where prehistoric peoples fashioned fine tools from ultra-hard diorite stone and created sickles for harvesting wild cereals.

Pollen deposits gathered by Dr. Fred Wendorf, a respected American Egyptologist, proved that a great number of very early agricultural experiments were occurring in prehistoric Egypt during this period, accompanied by a marked drop in fish consumption, suggesting a heavier reliance on agriculture. Immediately following this period, c.10,500BC, a sudden fall in temperatures and increased aridity transformed the fertile savana grasslands of the surrounding sahara into a dust bowl, causing the previous golden age to end, where sickles and agricultural efforts abruptly vanish from the scene. Scientists refer to the cold resurgence as the Younger Dryas.

 A Great Snake that Toppled the "Sound Eye" of Ra

One of the proposed culprits of the climatic shift is a comet, or a series of small comets that exploded over the North American continent variously dated from c.11,000BC to 8500 BC, an event evident within a charcoal rich layer called the Usselo horizon. The catastrophic event may be responsible for the extinction of almost all the remaining Ice Age mega fauna, such as the wholly mammoth, giant sloth, mastodon, and saber-toothed tiger.

The evidence for the catastrophic event is believed to be a series of over 3000 craters straddling the North American central-east coast, called the Carolina bays. One likely scenario is that, while the comet or comets disintegrated in atmospheric entry, the fireballs eventually reached critical speed and mass and exploded, the aerial detonation igniting the region's cold and dry tundra forests below into an unquenchable firestorm, thus casting vast smoke screens over the earth, blotting out vital sunlight crucial to early agricultural ventures around the world.

Descriptions in the Edfu temple accounts seem to record an abstract memory of the event, the falling of the "Sound Eye", the shining countenance of Ra, mirroring the diminishing of the sun and the floundering of an early civilization. The "Great Leaping One" Snake god, appears to be a visual reference to a comet that prehistoric people saw streaking across the sky full of fire.

The floods recorded in the Edfu inscriptions that damaged the later "Temple of the Falcon", a challenge the Sebtiw priests Wa and 'Aa staved off with the powerful relics of the Falcon, simultaneously may be vague recollections of the unavoidable mega tsunamis, tidal displacement, and rapid shifts in water level that followed the Carolina impact event; the intense heat of the impacts at the same time might have melted larger portions of the North American laurentide ice sheet, accelerating the melting process and setting off additional inundations.

The Sacred Well of Creation

Carved upon the walls of the Ptolemaic temple of Edfu, the old island that originally arose from the primeval oceans, also is associated with an underworld, which housed the power objects of the Sebtiw; specifically, the texts mention the existence of the subterranean realm as the duat n ba, the "Underworld of the Soul".

Diagram of the Grand Ennead of Heliopolis

This sacred domain was reached via an actual construction named the "Place of the Well" said to exist at Giza, where the 'embryo', or 'seed' of creation resided, called also the "Great Lotus", or "Throne". It exuded a divine radiance which is said to be responsible for what is called “the primordial scission” in Egyptian mythology, where from one central cosmic entity, the physical world blossomed upon many petals, the father god Atum, like a biological cell in mitosis, separating into the grand ennead of the gods, numbering 8: Shu, Tefnut, Nut, Geb, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys, and Set. 

The Guardian of the Giza Underworld

Sokar, a falcon-headed deity, numbered one of the later Neteru beings that spawned from the ennead pantheon and remained the eternal guardian of Rostau (The Giza Plateau). Under the Giza plateau, a shrine to Sokar called the Shetayet, is detailed in the Am-Duat text of the New Kingdom period, a shrine quite literally translated to the "tomb of god" hidden beneath the plateau of the great pyramids. Although its location has never been determined, a possible location may lie in the vicinity of Gebel Gibli, a rock outcropping near the Great Sphinx.

The Duat n Ba of Sokar

Sokar’s realm was considered simultaneously a real physical subterranean world and a metaphysical one, appearing in the form of the Egyptian night sky. The deceased had to navigate through the Duat underworld in order to reach an afterlife among the stars, undergoing a dark journey, a period reflected in the sun's movement through the hours of darkness below the horizon.

Sokar's Hours: Midnight Passage

Sokar’s dominion encompassed the fourth and fifth hours of that Duat, the midnight hour of the Pharaohs journey to the eternal afterlife. A physical representation of the duat-underworld may actually exist at Giza, especially since pictorial images at Edfu of the Fourth and Fifth Hours mirrored the angle in which the Giza plateau slopes down from northwest to southeast.

In the picture to right, Sokar stood upon a snake with two wings, within an enclosed oval shaped egg object below a mound. The egg shape, called the "Mansion of Sokar" in the Pyramid Texts, is strongly reminiscent of the egg of the Primeval Ones, which was used to house the divine embryo of the earth. In addition, Sokar's proud stance over the snake may symbolize the defeat of "The Great Leaping One" by "the Falcon" god mentioned earlier in the Edfu texts. Alternatively, the Snake is also representative of the nameless Earth god, as the serpent was often associated with the earth by the Egyptians, who noticed that the creature always lived in dark caverns and holes.

The Am-Duat texts refer to the Fourth House of the Duat as "the road of the secret things of Re-stau [Rostau] ... by which entereth the body of Seker [Sokar], who is on the sand, the image which is hidden, and is neither seen nor perceived." An official during the reign of the pharaoh Pepi I (c.2300 BC) bore the name of "Chief of Secrets of the Chamber of Sokar." The lost Shetayet shrine of Sokar may in fact be an underground chamber beneath the Zep Tepi "Temple of the Falcon" built by the Sebtiw reclaiming the first "Island of Trampling" mentioned in the Edfu texts.

Thus, Sokar's fifth hour is the most holy of places, the original point of creation, where the divine radiance issued forth the light of the Lotus flower in the First Time, illuminating the dark waters of Nun.

The Duat n Ba Underworld ruled by Sokar

Not even the sun-god could penetrate Sokar's secret chamber during his nocturnal journey. Instead, the soul of the deceased is pulled along on a night-barge over the top of a conical pyramid-mound drawn above the realm of Sokar. The Great pyramid of Khafre, also represents the original mound of creation that sprang up from the divine forces below forming the pyramid's steep angled sides (in a way, the pyramid symbolizes the fingerprint or resulting impression formed by the "residual" forces of the first moment of creation).

Ever since the age of the Pharaohs, Egyptian myths and legends spoke of a cave underworld at Giza. Such stories were told by Roman and Arab travelers, and by locals around the Giza plateau. One man took it upon himself to find it.

The Adventures of Sir Henry Salt and Giovanni Caviglia

Tomb of the Birds Entrance

  In 1817, Sir Henry Salt, British Diplomat to Egypt, along with the Italian explorer Giovanni Caviglia, undertook an expedition to explore an unusual tomb west of the Great Pyramid. After finding a crack in the rock of the tomb hall, Salt and Caviglia peered inside a chamber, partly artificial and natural, opening up into a maze of subterranean passages. After traveling a distance of several hundred yards, the two men chanced upon a sepulcher room linked to three other chambers equal in size, from which a web of labyrinthine passages spread out into the darkness. Salt left Caviglia to explore the other chambers. The Italian followed a passage for a distance of 300 feet before giving up, leaving the labyrinth empty handed.

 

Henry Salt

Another legend preserved among the inhabitants of Nazlet es-Samman, the modern village nearby the pyramid field, spoke of a holy well, guarded by a holy man named Hammed es-Samman. His duty was to guard its entrance, for beneath it was a stone passage that led directly to what was remembered as an underground "city" or "palace".

 


Entrance to Tomb of Birds at Giza


Ground penetrating radar instruments have additionally detected a long passage traversing all the way into the pyramid of Khafre. The entrance to that cave system is called the Tomb of Birds, in which a group of Arab explorers found a shrine littered with mummified birds. Were the birds falcons representing the Sokar deity, or perhaps an ibis, an icon associated with the coveted Thoth, divine guardian of wisdom?

 

The Tomb of Hermes: House of the Sacred Knowledge

In the traditions of Hermeticism, a cult of intellectuals dating as far back as Hellenic Greece (its iconic symbol, the caduceus, survives to this day in the modern science of medicine, a twisting of two snakes around a staff capped with wings), Hermes was worshiped as a divine messenger of wisdom (Greek version of the Egyptian Ibis headed god Thoth). The group believed the actual tomb of Hermes existed beneath the pyramid of Khafre, housing the secret knowledge of the Universe and the key to primordial matter. An emerald tablet, said to contain that knowledge would be found along with the ancient King Thoth, one of the mythic rulers of Zep Tepi underneath the pyramid.

Image of Thoth (Ibis Headed god of Wisdom)

 

A similar school or "religion" of ancient Greece, Pythagorism, may actually be the contents inscribed upon the tablet (a kind of Einstein's "special relativity" for the ancient world). Pythagoras, the famous geometry mathematician, created a whole religion based on numerology and a mathematical cosmological order composed of octaves and harmonic unities inherit behind the symbolic meanings of numbers. During his youth, it was known by Plato and Aristotle that Pythagoras learned the secrets of geometry from Egyptian Priests c.550BC while staying in the country for over 20 years, and formed the religion of Pythagorism out of the esoteric mysticism of that country's traditional religions.

Pythagoras 

The Great Pyramids: Geometrical Masterpiece

The great pyramids of Giza are the most mathematically precise edifices ever constructed in ancient Egypt dated to at least 2550BC, however, there is substantial proof that the Pyramids are actually older by 1ooo years, see the page Giza Mystery for info. Amazingly, right at the very beginning of the civilization, the Egyptians used a sophisticated form of geometry that produced the greatest monuments, which knew no rivals thereafter. The secrets of the knowledge that helped build the pyramids was kept by the priests, who hid it deep within the temples of Egypt, a sanctuary in which only very high ranking priests could access. Could the mysticism of Pythagorism come from a very early epoch in Egyptian history?

Rumors and additional life readings established by the psychic Edgar Cayce, place a hall of records underneath the paws of the Sphinx, which could contain the secrets of a lost civilization. Seismic detection located a cavity beneath the right paw of the Sphinx, which is only one of many passages and corridors known to run all throughout the Giza underworld. A small ventilation shaft lies along the belly of the Sphinx, believed to provide air circulation to chambers below.

Incidentally, Rostua, the ancient name of Giza, literally means "mouth of many passages" in hieroglyphics.

 

The Great Sphinx: Guardian of the Duat Underworld 

The Sphinx itself bears the heavy marks of water erosional patterns that could only come from the Ice Age over 8000 years before Egyptian civilization was suppose to have begun. Perhaps the people of Edgar Cayce's mysterious Age of Ra-Ta (Reymond's Wa and 'Aa in the Edfu texts), originally shaped the Sphinx, and in light of a coming dark age, thought it necessary to bury the knowledge of the primordial cosmology of Pythagorism underneath the Sphinx for future generations to find. Later the Egyptians discovered the records and used the sacred knowledge to build the pyramids, recarving the head of the Sphinx to represent one of the Pharaohs.

Afterward, the tablets may have been moved to a tomb located within the maze under Khafre's pyramid after the pyramids were completed. Or perhaps such a tomb existed long before the Egyptians, or was built later by the Hellenistic Egyptian priests seeking a safe place to store the Pythagorean and Hermetic tablets so that their sacred contents could remain secret to the uninitiated.

The Osiris Shaft (aka Campbell's Tomb) 

In September 1997, a documentary film maker Boris Said appeared on Bell's radio show to talk about his recent work at Giza. One evening in 1992, Boris was taking a stroll on the Giza plateau when a plateau guard offered to show Boris a secret for twenty dollars. 

In April/May 1996 ground-penetrating radar detected a tunnel approximately two metres wide and about three meters below the surface emerging from the tail of the Sphinx, heading in a westerly direction under the causeway towards Khafre's pyramid.  

A shaft midway between the pyramid and Sphinx descended into the plateau, which strangely contained some of the same precipitous erosional patterns of the Sphinx, dating the shaft to the same epoch the Sphinx was shaped. The shaft descended into a spacious court, appearing empty. In the center of that court lay a second shaft falling 26 meters into an intermediary chamber where seven side chambers lay, two disturbed stone sarcophagi over 18 feet high residing in two of those acloves. Apparently a water pump was necessary to remove the high water table at the greater depths, revealing yet another shaft descending 15 meters to a large chamber further down.

Returning to the site in February 1997, Boris along with his film crew scraped some dirt away from the floor to sit his tripod. Suddenly, it quickly became apparent to Boris that a smooth hard surface was becoming exposed. Eventually the team uncovered a complete sarcophagus lid, containing an octagonal cross section, a design foreign amongst common Egyptian motifs. The 8 sides of the shape mirror the 8 gods in the Ennead Pantheon of Heliopolis, and represents a sacred symbol of numerical/geometric pythagorism.

Octagonal Coffin lid 

Boris and his team decided to use ground-penetrating radar to reveal what lay underneath the lid. The lid was around thirty inches thick; two and a half metres below the lid, the radar detected a two and a half meter wide anomaly with a domed ceiling. The anomaly descended at a twenty five degree angle in an easterly direction headed toward the Sphinx two hundred and seventy five yards away. The alleged tunnel emerging from the tail of the Sphinx under the causeway probably links up with this passage.

What the final chamber with the octagonal lid is suppose to represent is not known. Zahi Hawass, former director of the Giza plateau has claimed it to be a symbolic tomb of King Osiris, the ancient god of Zep Tepi. Hawass dated the lowest chamber to be of the 26th Dynasty, c. 525 BC, determined by nearby pottery. However, Ioannis Liritzis, Doctor of Physics and Archaeology at the University of the Aegean in Rhodes, using the pioneering dating technique of Optical Thermoluminescence measured the level of exposed gamma radiation and photons on the Sarcophagus lid, dating the chamber to at least the Middle Kingdom period. The pottery fragments are probably much later tomb offerings made to Osiris during the 26th Dynasty. In the second chamber above, Ioannis also took samples for Optical Thermoluminescence testing, which dated the Sarcophagus in that upper chamber to an even much earlier period in predynastic times.

The bottom "Osiris chamber" apparently did have water channels dug about a central "island", and retained water when first explored by Selim Hassan in 1934-1935. Four pillars with hieroglyphs also stood about the coffin when first explored, but were horribly destroyed by vandals at some point after Hassan uncovered the chamber. The passage below the lid suggests the coffin represents a symbolic gateway, the well of creation described in the Edfu texts, and the entrance into the farthest extent of Sokar's duat underworld at Giza.

 

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Sources and Books

Temple Of Edfu The following book is the most recent compilation of translations of the edfu building text walls.
Beneath the Pyramids Beneath the pyramids of Egypt lies a lost underworld of catacombs, hewn chambers, and cave tunnels. They are alluded to in ancient texts and Arab legends, but have been left unexplored until today. They have now been rediscovered and investigated for the first time by science and history writer Andrew Collins. What exactly does this subterranean realm tell us about the pyramids, their relationship to the stars, and the mythical origins of Egyptian civilization? Lavishly illustrated with color photos, this is a breathtaking personal journey of exploration and discovery.